core geography definition

inorganic material that has a characteristic chemical composition and specific crystal structure. This may be necessary to explain why seismic waves pass more rapidly in some directions than in others. Periphery countries are countries who possess a … Even the gas giants of our solar system, such as Jupiter and Saturn, have iron and nickel at their cores. The Geographer Online is an educational website aimed at providing geography teaching resources for all levels. The core-periphery model works on many scales, from towns and cities, to a global scale. having parts or molecules that are packed closely together. [12] The relative abundance of precious metals and other heavy elements respect to Earth's crust is explained with the theory of iron catastrophe, an event occured before the first eon during the accretion of early Earth.TemperatureThe temperature of the inner core can be estimated using experimental and theoretical constraints on the melting temperature of impure iron at the pressure (about 330 GPa) of the inner core boundary, yielding estimates of 5,700 K (5,430 °C; 9,800 °F). The growth of the inner core is not uniform. (atm) unit of measurement equal to air pressure at sea level, about 14.7 pounds per square inch. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. When Earth was formed about 4.5 billion years ago, it was a, The iron catastrophe allowed greater, more, Another key element in Earth’s core is sulfur—in fact 90% of the sulfur on Earth is found in the core. device that compresses a test substance to up to 6 million atmospheres of pressure. The boundary separating these regions is called the, The liquid metal of the outer core has very low. Although Earth’s magnetic field is generally stable, it. It has a solid inner core and a liquid outer core. Magnetism in the outer core is about 50 times stronger than it is on the surface. Earth Science, Geology, Geography, Physical Geography, Physics. Earth’s core is the very hot, very dense center of our planet. The Earth's structure and plate tectonics. From Indonesia to Great Britain, your child will read, color, and complete puzzles about other cultures around the globe. [13] The range of pressure in Earth's inner core is about 330 to 360 gigapascals (3,300,000 to 3,600,000 atm),[14] and iron can only be solid at such high temperatures because its melting temperature increases dramatically at these high pressures (see the Clausius–Clapeyron relation). Earth is the “Goldilocks” geodynamo. items gathered closely together in one place. seismic shock wave that represents perpendicular motion. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. Find more ways to say core, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. object's complete turn around its own axis. outer, solid portion of the Earth. USGS: What Do We Know about the Interior of the Earth? flexible and capable of reforming itself without breaking when under stress. It, too, has a weak magnetic field. Core Knowledge History and Geography™ Grades Kindergarten and up (Ages 5–12+) A comprehensive program in world and American history and geography, integrating topics in civics and the arts, Core Knowledge History and Geography™ (CKHG™) helps students build knowledge of the diverse civilizations, cultures, and concepts specified in the Core Knowledge Sequence. The core is the hottest, densest part of the Earth. Prior to the inner core's formation, the entire core was molten, and the age of the inner core is thought to lie between 2–4 billion years. (acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) an instrument that emits a thin beam of light that does not fade over long distances. Geoscientists recently discovered that the inner core itself has a core—the. This is split into two sections: the inner and outer core.. chemical that cannot be separated into simpler substances. gradual change in temperature from the Earth's core (hot) to its crust (cool), about 25° Celsus per kilometer of depth (1° Fahrenheit per 70 feet of depth). Also called a primary wave or pressure wave. Definition. Although the inner core is mostly NiFe, the iron catastrophe also drove heavy siderophile elements to the center of the Earth. area around and affected by a magnet or charged particle. core area Part of a range in which an animal or group of animals may rest securely, in which young may be raised, and to which in some species food may be taken to be eaten. This is puzzling, since lateral temperature variations along the inner core boundary are known to be extremely small (this conclusion is confidently constrained by magnetic field observations). measurement of the rate and direction of change in the position of an object. Which package you need to install depends on the provider you're using. © 1996 - 2020 National Geographic Society. Periphery definition, the external boundary of any surface or area. Because it is slowly cooling, many scientists expected that the inner core would be homogeneous. activity that includes a discharge of gas, ash, or lava from a volcano. Some hot spots produce volcanoes. [2], Contents1 Discovery2 Composition3 Temperature4 History5 Dynamics6 See also7 References, DiscoveryThe existence of an inner core distinct from the liquid outer core was discovered in 1936 by seismologist Inge Lehmann[3] using observations of earthquake-generated seismic waves that partly reflect from its boundary and can be detected by sensitive seismographs on the Earth's surface. In order to use spatial data with EF Core, you need to install the appropriate supporting NuGet package. Geoscientists cannot study the core directly. Just like the lithosphere, the inner core is divided into eastern and western. Source for information on core area: A Dictionary of Ecology dictionary. Agglomeration: a group of industries in the same location.. Agglomeration Economies: savings which arise from the concentration of industries in urban areas and their location close to linked activities. “Subterranean fiction” describes adventure stories taking place deep below the surface of the Earth. The inner core’s intense pressure—the entire rest of the planet and its atmosphere—prevents the iron from melting. The core-domain-sphere model of cultural geography says that culture is very concentrated at some points and less concentrated at others. force that explains the paths of objects on rotating bodies. It rotates eastward, like the surface, but it’s a little faster, making an extra rotation about every 1,000 years. Core Knowledge History and Geography Level 6. able to produce a force field that can attract or repel certain substances, usually metals (magnets). Jupiter, on the other hand, has a liquid core that is constantly swirling due to the planet’s rapid rotation. the sudden shaking of Earth's crust caused by the release of energy along fault lines or from volcanic activity. Think of culture as concentric circles. Overall, the other principal cities are 7.9 percent urban core (compared to 42.3 percent for the historical core municipalities). It is likely to be defended against members of the same species which do not share the range. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. liquid, iron-nickel layer of the Earth between the solid inner core and lower mantle. Differences between lines of longitude and lines of latitude, https://geoworld.fandom.com/wiki/Earth_core?oldid=4110. Scientists think the iron crystals may even have a completely different structure (not hcp), or exist at a different phase. upward movement of molten material from within the Earth to the surface, where it cools and hardens. rocky outermost layer of Earth or other planet. All geographers have common or shared interests whether they be geomorphologists or behavioralists; many of the divisions that characterize the discipline are dysfunctional and unnecessary. Depending on the core area, these strands may be designated by time periods, thematic principles, modes of practice, or other organizing principles. Venus has a liquid core, but rotates too slowly to churn significant convection currents. The confirmed discovery of such, Although we know that the core is the hottest part of our planet, its, The core is made of two layers: the outer core, which borders the mantle, and the inner core. massive slab of solid rock made up of Earth's lithosphere (crust and upper mantle). This flexible program, edited by Core Knowledge founder E.D. change in a celestial body's magnetic field so that the magnetic North and South Poles are switched. movement of a fluid from a cool area to a warm area. Ice core, long cylinder of glacial ice recovered by drilling through glaciers in Greenland, Antarctica, and high mountains around the world.Scientists retrieve these cores to look for records of climate change over the last 100,000 years or more. to explain or understand the meaning of something. It contains the second longest river in the world. flow of charged particles, mainly protons and electrons, from the sun to the edge of the solar system. (large low shear velocity province) seismically anomalous region at the deepest part of Earth's mantle. series of changes affecting natural and human activity on Earth's surface. The pressure and density are simply too great for the iron atoms to move into a liquid state. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. Learn more about how the earth is constructed with these classroom resources. As the entire Earth slowly cools, the inner core grows by about a millimeter every year. Also called lithospheric plate. The inner core grows as bits of the liquid outer core. temperature at which a ferromagnetic material loses its ferromagnetism—its ability to possess magnetism in the absence of a magnetic field. Also called the geosphere. All information about the core has come from, Most core research has been conducted by measuring seismic waves, the, In fact, seismic waves helped geoscientists identify the structure of the core itself. The Common Core State Standards Initiative, led by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and the National Governors Association … [8] Recent claims of detections of inner core transmitted shear waves were initially controversial but are now gaining acceptance. 1145 17th Street NW The Earth's core is the part of Earth in the middle of our planet. In fact, the eastern hemisphere of the inner core may actually be melting. Also called radioactivity. Mars, for instance, has a totally solid core and a weak magnetic field. However, unlike the outer core, the inner core is not liquid or even molten. Cultural Core/ Periphery Pattern Def: The core-periphery idea that the core houses main economic power of region and the outlying region or periphery houses lesser economic ties. radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum with a very short wavelength and very high energy. The core of geography consists of endeavors that touch base with five core elements: landscape, maps, hypotheses, processes, and models/generalizations. The Geography core standards are organized into strands, which represent significant areas of learning within content areas. Ultraviolet is often shortened to UV. Earth’s magnetic field is created in the swirling outer core. instance of being pressed together or forced into less space. National Geographic News: North Magnetic Pole Moving Due to Core Flux. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. chemical substance with a specific gravity of at least 5.0. intensely hot region deep within the Earth that rises to just underneath the surface. seismic boundary between Earth's liquid outer core and solid inner core. Dziewonski and Gilbert established the consistency of this hypothesis using normal modes of vibration of Earth caused by large earthquakes. e.g. [10] Because the inner core is more dense (12.8 ~ 13.1)g⁄cm³[11] than pure iron or nickel, even under heavy pressures, it's believed that the remaining part of the core is composed of gold, platinum and other siderophile elements in quantity enough to coat Earth's surface for 0.45 m (1.5 feet). natural substance composed of solid mineral matter. Core countries control and profit the most from the world system, and thus they are the "core" of the world system. [19] Seismologists have revealed that the inner core is not completely uniform and contains large-scale structures that seismic waves pass more rapidly through than others. Variations in rotation, conductivity, and heat impact the magnetic field of a geodynamo. imaginary line around the Earth, another planet, or star running east-west, 0 degrees latitude. The structure of the earth is divided into four major components: the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core. The outer core of the Earth is a liquid layer about 2,260 kilometers thick. process of separating different layers of a planetary body by chemical and physical mechanisms. having to do with the physical formations of the Earth. National Geographic Channel: Naked Science—Earth's Core, National Geographic Science: Inside the Earth. In general, the content and presentation in the CKHG K-2 units are appropriate for students in lower elementary grades. There are two main intuitions behind the definition of core–periphery network structures; one assumes that a network can only have one core, whereas the other allows for the possibility of multiple cores. Movement in the mantle caused by variations in heat from the core, cause the plates to shift, which can cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. These natural hazards then change our landscape, and in some cases, threaten lives and property. See more. The western hemisphere seems to be crystallizing more quickly than the eastern hemisphere. It is believed to consist of an iron–nickel alloy, and may have a temperature similar to the Sun's surface, approximately 5778 K (5505 °C). degree of hotness or coldness measured by a thermometer with a numerical scale. material that is able to flow and change shape. to move in a circular pattern around a more massive object. The temperature of the outer core ranges from 4400 °C in the outer regions to 6100 °C near the inner core. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. Core Unit 4. www.thegeographeronline.net. shock wave of force or pressure that travels through the Earth. The North America Core Growth of the core: The CBDs of thriving manufacturing cities grew upward, while urban peripheries grew outward. to create an image, representation, or model of something. process by which a celestial body generates a magnetic field. transformation of an unstable atomic nucleus into a lighter one, in which radiation is released in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and other particles. Another word for core. National Geographic Headquarters Inner core (Redirected from Earths core) Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. Planetary CoresAll known planets have metal cores. structuralist model A general term for models of economic development that treat economic disparities among countries or regions as the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic system. Because thermal convection alone appears to be improbable,[22] any buoyant convection motions will have to be driven by variations in composition or abundance of liquid in its interior. The temperature of the inner core is far above the melting point of iron. to move toward or be attracted to something. process by which a substance grows by the collection and clustering of different parts. Sentence: A Cultural Core is similar to a hearth. most common group of minerals, all of which include the elements silicon (Si) and oxygen (O). Follow us! arrangement of the parts of a work or structure in relation to each other and to the whole. set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge. All rights reserved. This orientation is not aligned with either Earth’s rotational axis or magnetic field. See more. Search core area and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. Partially to scale. The core-periphery model was developed in 1963 by John Friedmann and it identifies the spatical distances from the core. Photo: Man cuts cores out of ice in an ice cave. Partially to scale.The inner core of the Earth, its innermost hottest part as detected by seismological studies, is a primarily solid ball about 1,220 km (760 mi) in radius,[1] or about 70% that of the Moon. The hottest part of the core is actually the Bullen discontinuity, where temperatures reach 6,000° Celsius (10,800° Fahrenheit)—as hot as the surface of the sun. The core—a central region in an economy, with good communications and high population density, which conduce to its prosperity—is contrasted with the periphery—outlying regions with poor communications and sparse population (for examples, see unemployment). The intermedency regions in terms of the hierarchy of power between core regions and peripheral regions. Core definition, the central part of a fleshy fruit, containing the seeds. [7] The solidity of the inner core has been difficult to establish because the elastic shear waves that are expected to pass through it are very weak and difficult to detect. device used for heating by burning a fuel, such as wood or coal. Also called standard atmospheric pressure. How to use core in a sentence. Growth is less concentrated around “superplumes” or. Models of core–periphery structures. Distinguishing Between core and corps and corpse and corp S. Yoshida and colleagues proposed a novel mechanism whereby deformation of the inner core can be caused by a higher rate of freezing at the equator than at polar latitudes,[23] and S. Karato proposed that changes in the magnetic field might also deform the inner core slowly over time. core synonyms, core pronunciation, core translation, English dictionary definition of core. [citation needed]Growth of the inner core is thought to play an important role in the generation of Earth's magnetic field by dynamo action in the liquid outer core. transfer of heat by the movement of the heated parts of a liquid or gas. In time, nearby cities coalesced into an expansive metropolitan area known as a megalopolis: In Canada, the urban axis from Windsor to Quebec is … [15]HistoryMain article: History of EarthJ. Privacy Notice |  This causes it to become buoyant and helps drive convection of the outer core. It rotates steadily, at a brisk 1,675 kilometers per hour (1,040 miles per hour) at the. the basic unit of an element, composed of three major parts: electrons, protons, and neutrons. oddly crystallized structure at the heart of our planet, with iron crystals oriented east-west instead of north-south (as with the inner core). representation of a process, concept, or system, often created with a computer program. middle layer of the Earth, made of mostly solid rock. Created and Developed by: Steven Heath. Facts about Brazil: Capital City: Brasilia. You cannot download interactives. The crystals of the inner inner core are oriented east-west instead of north-south. The energy supply that drives convection in the outer core is provided as droplets of liquid iron freeze onto the solid inner core. But in the inner core, the temperature is so high the magnetism of iron is altered. type of stony meteorite containing hardened droplets, called chondrules, of silicate minerals. This guide, now in its final version (v.2), is an alignment of the Common Core English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects to the Geography for Life: National Geography Standards, Second Edition. Earth’s core is the very hot, very dense center of our planet.The ball-shaped core lies beneath the cool, brittle crust and the mostly-solid mantle.The core is found about 2,900 kilometers (1,802 miles) below Earth’s surface, and has a radius of about 3,485 kilometers (2,165 miles). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimagecollection@natgeo.com for more information and to obtain a license. type of mineral that is clear and, when viewed under a microscope, has a repeating pattern of atoms and molecules. material that has a chemical affinity for iron. Outer core. The rural-to-urban migration and high birth rates of the periphery are creating both megacities, urban areas with more than eight million people, and hyper cities, urban areas with more than 20 million people.These cities, such as Mexico City or Manila, have slum areas that can contain up to two million people with little infrastructure, rampant crime, no health care, and massive unemployment. state of matter with no fixed shape and molecules separated into ions and electrons. This heat, in turn, makes the remaining liquid iron more buoyant. Recent discoveries suggest that the solid inner core itself is composed of layers, separated by a transition zone about 250 to 400 km thick. The Student Books include maps and full color images. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary In the late 19th century, scientists noted a “shadow zone” deep in the Earth, where a type of, In the 20th century, geoscientists discovered an increase in the velocity of, In the lab, the most valuable tool for studying forces and reactions at the core is the. [21] If the inner core grows by small frozen sediments falling onto its surface, then some liquid can also be trapped in the pore spaces and some of this residual fluid may still persist to some small degree in much of its interior.Because the inner core is not rigidly connected to Earth's solid mantle, the possibility that it rotates slightly faster or slower than the rest of Earth has long been entertained. 22@: a high-tech zone located on a brownfield site in Barcelona. Code of Ethics. In 1997, the AGU created the Inge Lehman Medal, recognizing a scientist’s “outstanding contributions to the understanding of the structure, composition, and dynamics of the Earth's mantle and core.”. relative positions of specific atoms or molecules in a chemical compound. area where one tectonic plate slides under another. [6], The outer core was believed to be liquid due to its inability to transmit elastic shear waves; only compressional waves are observed to pass through it. Terms of Service |  It was even suggested that Earth's inner core may be a single crystal of iron;[18] however, this is at odds with the observed degree of disorder inside the inner core. irregularly shaped planetary body, ranging from 6 meters (20 feet) to 933 kilometers (580 miles) in diameter, orbiting the sun between Mars and Jupiter. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Geography Wiki is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. Scientists estimate it would take about 91 billion years for the core to completely solidify—but the sun will burn out in a fraction of that time (about 5 billion years). These countries possess the ability to exercise control over other countries or groups of countries with several kinds of power such as military, economic, and political power. Because of this unusual set of circumstances, some geophysicists prefer to. One of the most bizarre ways geoscientists study the core is through “geoneutrinos.” Geoneutrinos are neutrinos, the lightest subatomic particle, released by the natural radioactive decay of potassium, thorium, and uranium in Earth’s interior. THEORIES OF CORE AND PERIPHERY. Hirsch, Jr. follows the Core Knowledge Sequence to teach key history and geography topics at each consecutive level. For this reason, it also goes by the name human geography. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. [citation needed]Speculation also continues that the inner core might have exhibited a variety of internal deformation patterns. process of a glacier moving and changing the landscape. We want students to be passionate about the planet earth. rate of occurrence, or the number of things happening in a specific area over specific time period. Physical geography is the branch of geography dealing with the natural features of the Earth, the home of humans. Fluctuations in the core can cause Earth’s magnetic field to change even more dramatically. the sun and the planets, asteroids, comets, and other bodies that orbit around it. By studying geoneutrinos, scientists can better understand the composition and spatial distribution of materials in the mantle and core. Also called a secondary wave or shear wave. large, spherical celestial body that regularly rotates around a star. material remains of a culture, such as tools, clothing, or food. Physical geography looks at the water, air, animals, and land of the planet Earth (i.e. deepest layer of the Earth, beneath the outer core. The inner core is solid and is composed of iron and nickel. If the 11 municipalities with cores larger than 50,000 are excluded, the share living in functional urban cores for the remaining more than 150 cities is 1.5 percent. direction that all compass needles point. (~4 billion years ago) point in Earth's planetary formation when the temperature reached the melting point of iron and heavy elements (mostly iron and nickel) gravitated toward the center of the planet. measure of the resistance of a fluid to a force or disturbance. single axis or line around which a body rotates or spins. moving, measurable change in pressure and density of a material. Each layer has a unique chemical composition, physical state, and can impact life on Earth's surface. Warmer liquids spiral upward, while cooler solids spiral downward under intense pressure: convection. valuable metal, such as gold, silver, or platinum. Core nations benefit the most from the hierarchical structure of global labor and trade. Solidification releases heat energy. It is approximately 1,221 km thick and has a density of 12.8g/cm3 at the top of the section and 13.1g/cm3 at its deepest point. steady, predictable flow of fluid within a larger body of that fluid. Once this temperature, called the, Some geoscientists describe the outer core as Earth’s “. Jules Verne’s, Inge Lehman, who called herself “the only Danish seismologist” working in the 1930s, was a pioneering figure in the study of Earth’s interior. process of studying a problem or situation, identifying its characteristics and how they are related. Student Book: Continents, Countries, and Maps CKHG Student Books offer engagingly written and richly illustrated text on the topics specified for the unit. [24]There is an East–West asymmetry[clarification needed] in the inner core seismological data. seismic wave that travels through the interior of the Earth. It might be easy to think that Earth’s magnetism is caused by the big ball of solid iron in the middle. (singular: datum) information collected during a scientific study. Lehman was the first to identify Earth’s solid inner core, and became a leading expert in the structure of the upper mantle as well. The core will never “freeze over.” The crystallization process is very slow, and the constant radioactive decay of Earth’s interior slows it even further. Photo of a kneeling woman with a sediment core. the extremely hot center of Earth, another planet, or a star. This boundary is referred as Bullen discontinuity[4] or sometimes Lehmann discontinuity. GCSE Industry Glossary. [citation needed] In the 1990s, seismologists made various claims about detecting this kind of super-rotation by observing changes in the characteristics of seismic waves passing through the inner core over several decades, using the aforementioned property that it transmits waves faster in some directions. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. Core definition is - a central and often foundational part usually distinct from the enveloping part by a difference in nature : such as. Also called a superplume or thermo-chemical pile. These two intuitive conceptions serve as the basis for two modes of core–periphery structures. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. ray extending from the center of a circle or sphere to its surface or circumference. The world-system theory uses the logic that multi-national financial disputes and global wars are attempts to alter the location of the world’s market for specific countries. [5] Later (1940) it was conjectured that this inner core was solid iron, and its rigidity was confirmed in 1971. Our first grade geography worksheets and printables introduce geography to young learners. Cultural. The core. It occurs in lumps and bunches, and is influenced by activity in the mantle. When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. nickel-iron alloys that form Earth's core. Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. The terms core and periphery are used in many contexts, but surprisingly the two main theories of core and periphery disagree on what the outcome of this economic differentiation will be. temperature at which a solid turns to liquid. In fact, one geoscientist calculated that there are 1.6 quadrillion tons of gold in the core—that’s enough to gild the entire surface of the planet half-a-meter (1.5 feet) thick. There is a model which explains this by differences at the surface of the inner core – melting in one hemisphere and crystallization in the other.[25]. Sustainability Policy |  A. Jacobs [16] was the first to suggest that the inner core is freezing and growing out of the liquid outer core due to the gradual cooling of Earth's interior (about 100 degrees Celsius per billion years[17]). This occurs mostly because it cannot dissolve the same amount of light elements as the outer core and therefore freezing at the inner core boundary produces a residual liquid that contains more light elements than the overlying liquid. The definition of which countries are core, periphery, or semi-periphery can evolve as countries develop. type of rock that has crashed into Earth from outside the atmosphere. everything that is part of the four spheres - the … Define core. Moving on, cultural geography deals with human culture and its impact on the earth. The inner core of the Earth, its innermost hottest part as detected by seismological studies, is a primarily solid ball about 1,220 km (760 mi) in radius,[1] or about 70% that of the Moon. Geography vocabulary and glossary: manufacturing and industry. [9]CompositionBased on the abundance of chemical elements in the solar system, the theory of planetary formation, and other chemical constraints regarding the remainder of Earth's volume, the inner core is composed primarily of a nickel–iron alloy referred to as Nife: 'Ni' for nickel, and 'Fe' for ferrum or iron. Learning about the world we live in is crucial at every age. She was the first woman to receive the prestigious William Bowie Medal, the highest honor awarded by the American Geophysical Union. She or he will best know the preferred format. Planet Earth is older than the core. The liquid outer core separates the inner core from the rest of the Earth, and as a result, the inner core rotates a little differently than the rest of the planet. to look quickly or from a secret location. The Earth is made up of different layers: The inner core is in the centre and is the hottest part of the Earth. core region definition in English dictionary, core region meaning, synonyms, see also 'CORE',core store',core subjects',core time'. Estimates of this super-rotation are around one degree of extra rotation per year, although others have concluded it is rotating more slowly than the rest of Earth by a similar amount. seismic shock wave that represents longitudinal motion. powerful light waves that are too short for humans to see, but can penetrate Earth's atmosphere. layer in the atmosphere containing the gas ozone, which absorbs most of the sun's ultraviolet radiation. to pass along information or communicate. [citation needed] The existence of the inner core also changes the dynamic motions of liquid in the outer core as it grows and may help fix the magnetic field since it is expected to be a great deal more resistant to flow than the outer core liquid (which is expected to be turbulent). [20] The surface of the inner core exhibits rapid variations in properties at scales at least as small as 1 km. Within each strand are standards. Dig deep—really deep—with our gallery of illustrations and a downloadable poster of Earth's interior. At the centre of the earth lies the core. temperature at which liquid becomes solid; the freezing point of water is 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit). Because it is younger than the age of Earth (about 4.5 billion years), the inner core cannot be a primordial feature inherited during the formation of the solar system[citation needed].DynamicsLittle is known about how the inner core grows.

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